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CIVIL
內地交流系列 — 三峽工程考察團報告(三)
溫衛強工程師

離開三峽大壩,考察團第三天來到湖北省內的最大水壩,隔河岩大壩參觀。大壩位於長江的另一支流─清江。清江位於湖北的西南部,是湖北省境內長江的第二大支流。隔河岩大壩高201米,正常儲水位200米,電站裝有4台單機容量為30萬千瓦的水輪發電機組,裝機容量120萬千瓦。隔河岩大壩在87年開始興建,而水電站則於94年全部建成並投產。

隔河岩大壩上下游水位相差132米,規劃修建兩級垂直升船機,第一級提升高度為50米,第二級為82米,提升船隻的最大規模為300噸。據考察團瞭解,隔河岩工程的垂直升船機,是三峽工程的試驗模型。三峽工程的升船機採用一級垂直提升,最大提升高度為113米,提升船隻的規模為3,000噸。按計劃,三峽工程升船機必須在2003年年底之前投入運行。 但是由於隔河岩工程的升船機試驗失敗,導致三峽工程升船機的可行性論証遲遲未能獲得通過。

參觀了隔河岩大壩之後,考察團乘坐旅遊船從水庫出發,看著大壩逐漸從水平線消失。經過一個多小時的船程,我們便來到土家族先民的發祥地─武落鍾離山。武落鍾離山位於隔河岩水庫上游清江南岸。團員先在岸邊的一家小菜館品嚐土家族傳統菜式,飯後便往山上走,石階依山而建,拾級而上可直達山頂。在那裡居高臨下,清江景色一覽無遺。當天,還有一個穿上土家族傳統服飾的老伯,在我們當中高唱土家族的傳統歌曲。由於我們對歌詞不甚瞭解,老伯便向我們講解一番。在美景與歌聲中,我們享受大自然渾然天成的美態,也感受土家族的熱情和純樸。

第四天,即行程的最後一天,考察團來到中國於七、八十年代興建的最大壩─葛洲壩參觀。葛洲壩位於三峽大壩下游約40公里處,全長2,561米,高70米,兩座電站共裝有21台單機容量12.5萬千瓦的水輪發電機組,裝機容量280萬千瓦。

最後一期的考察團報告,我會帶大家去尋找中華鱘及參觀三遊洞。請大家繼續留意考察團報告(四)。


武落鍾離山上的清江美景


清江隔河岩大壩

Technical seminar on transport infrastructure and city growth - third report
By Ir Emeric WAN

In the last two sessions, I have reported what Ir C K Mak told us about the transport related infrastructure development in the past two decades. In this final session, I will continue to share with you Ir Mak掇 vision on the responses to the new challenges for the upcoming infrastructure projects.

(1) Full project life planning: experienced engineers should look at the project from the strategic planning angle because project planning, design, and construction usually account for an insignificant portion out of the intended service life.

(2) Approach to project implementation: select the most appropriate institutional entity (government, public, private, etc); carry out ongoing review to confirm the readiness of project in terms of programme and function (ie check and balance); set the target commissioning date and work back the programme and details (ie forward planning); allow ample time for testing and commissioning.

(3) Asset management: asset value diminishes with time unless it is regularly maintained. Lift-time monitoring is required for major bridges; the same principle and concept should be extended to other projects.

(4) Cross boundary conditions: Hong Kong-Shenzhen Western Corridor is funded and built together by the Hong Kong and Shenzhen Governments. Since people move from one jurisdiction to another, coordination between the two places is required. Hong Kong-Zhuzhi-Macau Bridge involves three entities. Integration with Pearl River Delta requires proper management of cross boundary interface. Consensus and support from the people and the Governments is essential.

In the concluding remarks, Ir Mak shared with us the importance of consensus building. In Central-Wanchai Bypass project, public reaction is clear but diversified. There are different people in the community presenting their views to support or not support the reclamation. Engineers should not be confined to the technical matters, and should value the dimensions of the community. Hence, it is important to assess the economics, environment, and social implication for each alternative, to consider the views of different people and then to give options for the public to choose in an attempt to build the consensus. In case of no overwhelming consensus, engineers should pursue the most justifiable course of action.

Ir Mak's version at strategic level inspired the floor tremendously. I would like to express my gratitude to Ir Mak for his wonderful sharing and the efforts of the programme organising committee led by Ir Victor Lo, and assisted by Ir Eva Kong and Ir Jeo Cheung in making the technical talk a success.


Ir C K Mak (R) in the question-and-answer session


Group photo with Ir Mak

Technical visit to Lok Ma Chau Terminus and associated works
By Ir Kevin C Y CHIM

With support from Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC), a technical visit to the Lok Ma Chau (LMC) Terminus was organised by the CV Division on 17 June 2006. During this site visit, Ir Thomas Tam, who is the project manager of the LMC Spur Line project, briefed the background of the project.

The LMC Spur Line project was divided into six civil construction contracts, 13 railway system contracts and one environmental works contract. The construction cost of the project is about HK$8.6 billion. The total length of LMC Spur Line is around 7.4 km from Sheung Shui Station to Lok Ma Chau Station. Ir Tam highlighted the following points of the project:

- For the tunnel section, the tunnel boring machine could be operated for both hard rock and soft soil with earth balance method. In addition, the ground freezing method was adopted for the construction of the cross passages underneath Long Valley, which is the emergency route of escape to connect two railway tunnels. Open cut method was adopted at Kwu Tung for future development of a station if necessary.

- A multi-plenum noise mitigation system was adopted to mitigate the noise generated from the train.

- At the Lok Ma Chau Terminus, both directions of train would be located at the same floor and its advantage is to avoid the problem of extended length of overrun. This design is to save the time and cost for the trains to change from upline railway to downline railway.

- About 37 hectare of wetland was successfully created to provide an environmental friendly condition for the south of the Lok Ma Chau Terminus prior to the commencement of construction works.

The LMC Terminus would improve the congestion condition at the existing Lo Wu Station and its floor area is about 3.5 times of the existing Lo Wu Station. At the site walk, members visited the new concourse and platform area. Ir Kam Cheng introduced the architectural and builder works at the new concourse and the precast beams and slabs for construction of building structure. Also, he mentioned that both sides of the terminus were designed for the expansion in the future to cater for the increase in passenger flow if necessary. Then members walked up to the roof of the new station to visit the external construction works.

On behalf of the CV Division, we would like to thank Ir Thomas Tam and Ir Kam Cheng of KCRC for their kind assistance in this visit.


Group photo on the roof of Lok Ma Chau Terminus


(L to R) Ir Martin Ho, Mr S F Cheung, Ir Kevin C Y Chim, Ir Thomas Y K Tam (project manager, LMC Spur Line) and Ir Kam Cheng

Technical seminar on Nam Wan Tunnel
By Mr William HOPKIN

Route 8's 1.25 km Nam Wan Tunnel is a key link in the chain of highway projects connecting Lantau to Shatin. Ove Arup's Mr Jeremy Sparrow, project manager, addressed a technical meeting organised by the CV Division on 6 July 2006 on the details and challenges of the project.

To maximise efficiency, the project team adopted a multi-front construction approach, with lining and E&M works following the blasting team through the tunnel. Once a detonation had been carried out, works in partly constructed sections recommenced. An active ventilation system was required to carry exhaust gases away from the blast zone and replace them with fresh air.

The drilling of the blast face was carried out using computer controlled drilling rigs. Once the blast design and explosives had been authorised and the face charged, the tunnel was evacuated for the blast. After removal of the exhaust gases, spoil excavation was carried out and the condition of the new section assessed, shored as required and prepared for the next blast. The resulting cycle took between 16 and 24 hours.

The tunnel has a multi-layer engineered lining. This consists of a geotextile and waterproofing membrane to improve drainage, keep the tunnel dry and relieve hydrostatic pressures, and a cast in-situ structural concrete lining. The lining shutters were designed to allow ventilation and works access beyond them throughout the 14-hour pouring process.

The E&M works were carried out in a 600 m section following the roadwork crew. Following soffit painting, permanent ventilation, lighting systems and the smoke duct were all installed in the soffit and haunch areas. The fire resistance of the ventilation system was tested to destruction in the harsh environment of the Scandinavian winter, continuing to work normally when subjected to the requirement of 400? for one hour and a thermal shock.

Mr Sparrow's presentation was both broad and deep, and left us with a good insight into the challenges and techniques of the project. After a question-and-answer session, Ir Victor Lo proposed a vote of thanks to the speaker and Ir Philco Wong presented Mr Sparrow with the souvenir.


The seminar received overwhelming response from members


Mr Jeremy Sparrow (middle), CV Division Committee Members and the seminar helpers

Technical seminar on Deep Bay Link (Southern Section) - construction challenges and innovations
By Miss TO Sai Shun

On 25 July 2006, the CV Division organised a technical meeting entitled Deep Bay Link Southern Section (DBLS) with Ir Simon Tong, chief resident engineer (CRE) of Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd as the speaker of this topic. He then started with an overview of the project with factual data.

In order to cope with the present and expected future cross-border traffic demand between Hong Kong and Shenzhen, it is necessary to have the fifth boarder crossing, Hong Kong-Shenzhen Western Corridor (HK-SWC). DBLS was built to connect HK-SWC and to the existing trunk roads (ie Yuen Long Highway (YLH)). The contract valued at HK$1.2 billion with a contract period of 31 months from June 2003. Scope of works included a 160 m long viaduct; 3.7 km long slip roads; widening and reconstruction of Yuen Long highway; extension of existing pedestrian subways and box culvert; and modification of existing bridges, retaining walls, noise barriers and landscaping works.

The viaducts were supported by large diameter bored piles (LDBP) ranging from 1.2 m to 2.5 m diameter. As the geological condition comprised of tuff, meta-siltstone and meta-sandstone with a fault across, both friction piles and end-bearing piles with length of 40 m to 77 m and 10 m to 70 m respectively were used while friction piles were particularly used along the fault zone.

Precast concrete segments for the segmental bridges were produced in casting yards in Dongguan and Shenzhen, the PRC with an average cycle time of one segment per day. Segments were transported to the site via the road route at Lok Ma Chau and the sea route at Lok On Pai. As some segments were oversized, and Lok On Pai is located close to residential areas, temporary storage area was essential to allow segments unloaded during daytime and transported to the site at night to minimise disturbances to the residents.

With an extremely tight construction programme required many interfaces, construction of two prestressed in-situ viaducts across the busy YLH, and working within the congested site surrounded by the existing highway and village houses were really challenging. This informative technical meeting was well received by participants and the project illustrates how civil engineers are committed to mitigate effects to the public, and to implement facilities to minimise adverse effects to the environment.


Ir Timothy Suen (L) presenting the souvenir to the speaker Ir Simon Tong


Ir Simon Tong giving the presentation

Technical seminar on safety practices and experience in the PRC
By Ir LAM Chi Sing

A seminar on safety practices and experiences in the PRC was held at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University on 8 August 2006. The seminar was jointly organised by the CV Division and the Institution of Occupational Safety & Health - Hong Kong Branch.

The speaker, Mr Victor C L Kwong began by outlining the reasons for industrial accidents occurrence in the PRC. They include the deficiencies in the legal system in respect of safety; improper enforcement of safety laws by the enforcers; inadequate safety awareness of the workers; insufficient education and training; inadequate safety resources and facilities, etc.

Industrial accidents could cause huge economic loss, human sufferings as well as social impacts. It is estimated that the economic loss made up to RMB 360 to 600 billion annually. In 2005, 127,089 persons lost their lives due to accidents. The major causes of accidents arose from traffic, coal mining and construction activities. The number of occupational diseases was 12,212, with lung problems occupied 75.11%.

The first Safe Production Law came into force in November 2002. It clearly defines the responsibilities of provincial government, local government, and an enterprise for ensuring safe production. Those who contravene the law of safe production will be liable to commit criminal offence. The offenders would subject to 3 to 10 years imprisonment. Enterprises should adopt safety measures to protect the employees at work. Section 20 of Safe Production Law requires that investment in safety facilities shall be included in the budget of new projects. The top management as well as the workers should receive appropriate safety training before work. Special trade worker must acquire the relevant safety and skill training certificates before work.

The speaker ended the presentation by briefly introducing the strategy for effective implementation of safety measures in the PRC, including carrying out regular safety audits and inspections; strengthening the safety commitment from top management; encouraging active participation by top management in safety promotion activities; safety organisation with safety personnel reporting directly to top management; and training and education to all levels of employees. The joint seminar recorded a full-house attendance and was well received by the members of the organisers.


(L to R) Ir C S Lam, Mr Victor Kwong, the speaker, Ir Victor Lo


The seminar received full house attendance

Technical visit to KDB200 Kowloon Southern Link
By Miss Monica CHOW

On 12 August 2006, the CV Division organised a technical visit to Kowloon Southern Link KDB200. Upon arrival, Ir Stephen Wu of the KCRC and Mr Dallas Keane of Link 200 JV gave us a brief of the project.

The project is an extension of West Rail from Nam Cheong to East Tsimshatsui for connecting East Rail and West Rail for interchange at Hung Hom. The whole project (civil engineering, building services and architectural building works) was divided into three design and build contracts. KDB200 was one of the contracts which comprise construction of the West Kowloon Station and Tunnels from Jordan Road to East Tsimshatsui Station. The Kowloon Southern Link Project-KDB200 comprises a 3.8 km underground, double-tracked electrified passenger railway.

Cut and cover construction method is employed to the West Kowloon Station. The station consists of four levels with station length of 340 m, two levels are located below ground. The diaphragm walls around the station are ranging from 20 m to 40 m depth with 3 m to 6 m wide panels. Around 200 pre-bored H-piles are also installed. The whole construction sequence of the station was well-explained during the site visit. To facilitate the BD submission and approval process, the station is divided into three separate areas.

Two types of tunnelling techniques are used in this project - twin bored tunnel and cut and cover tunnels. There are twin bored tunnel beneath Canton Road and cut and cover tunnels under Jordan Road and Salisbury Road connecting the ETS station overrun tunnel.

Located in the urban area, the arrangement of traffic diversion of Austin and Wui Cheung Road, the existence of seawall and Wai Cheung Road GC culvert diversion are the other challenges of this project. The environmental impact of the project to the surrounding is highly concerned and closely monitored during construction.

Followed by the project presentation in the site office, the organiser and their staff guided us to visit the site and gave us more comprehensive information of the construction. Members were all interested and raising lots of technical questions. On behalf of the CV Division and participating members, we express our thank to the KCRC representatives, Ir Mak Kam-wing, Ir Paul H C Chiu, Mr Stephen T M Wu, Mr Dallas Keane and their staff for giving us a technical presentation and visit.


Group photo with the KCRC representatives


Ir C S Lam (L) presenting souvenir to Ir Mak Kam-wing, KCRC representative

The Second International Symposium on Road Safety - developing road safety strategies: methodology and policy
By Ir Cyril K M LUI

The Second International Symposium on Road Safety (ISRS 2006), jointly organised by the School of Geography of the University of Hong Kong and the Transport Department of the HKSAR Government, was held successfully at the Sheraton Hotel on 5 August 2006. The CV Division was one of the non-financial sponsors of the event. The objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum for local and overseas academics and transport professionals to exchange views and share their experience and latest results on road safety researches and practices; and to promote the public's awareness of road safety issues in Hong Kong. The First Symposium was held in 2002. Since then, it has become a popular rendezvous for academics and related professionals around the world to come together and share their experience and visions on road safety. The symposium attracted over 160 engineers, transport operators, academics, transport planners, medical professionals and enforcement agents to attend.

ISRS' 2006, with a theme of "Developing road safety strategies: methodology and policy" aimed to solicit international expertise in the methodology and policy research on road safety to pave the way for the formulation of sustainable road safety strategies in Hong Kong. It started after a welcome address by Prof Joseph Lee, pro-vice-chancellor of the University of Hong Kong, and an opening address by Mr Alan Wong, commissioner for Transport of the HKSAR Government. Eight papers were presented by world leading professors and prominent local speakers. The overseas speakers were Prof Richard Allsop (University College London, UK), Prof Li Guohua (Johns Hopkins University of Medicine, USA), Prof Andrew Evans (Imperial College London, UK), Prof Mike Maher (Napier niversity, UK) and Prof Richard Tay (University of Calgary, Canada). The local speakers included Ir T F Leung (Transport Department), Dr Becky Loo (HKU) and Dr K L Tsui (Tuen Mun Hospital).

The topics of the papers covered a wide range of subjects. The symposium was certainly a fruitful one. All participants gained new insights and obtained first hand information from the speakers. The symposium finally came to an end after the closing speech delivered by Dr Becky Loo, chairperson of the symposium.


The organising committee and the speakers

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